The unprecedented increase in global demands of vegetable oil and biofuel production has spurred oil palm cultivation in the tropics that resulting in deforestation and biodiversity loss. This study aims to explore the potential if oil palm agroforestry can enhance soil quality, crop yield, and ecosystem carbon stock in northeast India. A 3-year field experiment was conducted in an oil palm agroforestry with maize (T1), turmeric (T2), and pineapple (T3) and compared with monoculture oil palm (T0) to identify the best-performing systems. The T0 site demonstrated higher oil palm growth and aboveground biomass (0.22 Mg tree−1). However, T3 site showed the highest crop (15.6 Mg ha−1) and intercrop (10.8 Mg ha−1) yield, and ecosystem carbon stock (55.44 Mg C ha−1). The study highlights significance of oil palm agroforestry in increasing crop yield and ecosystems carbon stock at the degraded jhum land in northeast India. The findings also provide an empirical basis to achieve land degradation neutrality and the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals through oil palm agroforestry.